After this campaign, he was sent on a mission to the Republic of Genoa to determine that country’s intentions towards France. Men, women, and children were robbed and murdered for three days. In August, the British fleet under Horatio Nelson captured or destroyed all but two French vessels in the Battle of the Nile, defeating Bonaparte’s goal to strengthen the French position in the Mediterranean. Not a single deputy voted “no,” although 26 attached some condition to their votes. In October 1795, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention. In addition, the sans-culottes faced violent suppression by the Muscadin, a group of street fighters organized by the new government. He dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. The attack on Jaffa was particularly brutal. The period from 1793 to 1794 was known as Reign of Terror: 1. The Directory denounced the arbitrary executions of the Reign of Terror, but also engaged in large-scale illegal repressions and even massacres of civilians (War in the Vendée). Its laws and policies took the revolution to unprecedented heights—they introduced the revolutionary calendar in 1793, closed churches in and around Paris as a part of a movement of dechristianization, tried and executed Marie Antoinette, and instituted the Law of Suspects, among other initiatives. The intense rivalry between the two superpowers raised concerns in the United States that Communists and leftist sympathizers inside America might actively work as Soviet spies and pose a threat to U.S. security.Such ideas were not totally unfounded. The Reign of Terror  (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794), also known as The Terror, was a period of violence during the French Revolution incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins (moderate republicans) and the Jacobins (radical republicans), and marked by mass executions of “the enemies of the revolution.”. The execution of the Girondins, moderate republicans, enemies of the more radical Jacobins. Expert Answer: The period from 1793 to 1794 in France is called the Reign of Terror. As a result of Robespierre’s insistence on associating terror with virtue, his efforts to make the republic a morally united patriotic community became equated with the endless bloodshed. The main causes of the reign of terror were that people was obsessed with the anti-revolution feeling so thousands of people were suspected of anti-revolutionary activities or of helping France’s enemies. They do not explain the specific politics of that revolution that led specific actors to take specific decisions in response to existing conditions. The Committee carried out thousands of executions against supposed enemies of the young Republic. Ultimately, 693 deputies voted “yes” for a guilty verdict. But even National Assembly could not pass any law to end of slavery in the fear of repercussion from businessmen who were mainly in slave trade. He supported the republican Jacobin movement and was promoted to captain in 1792, despite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a riot against a French army in Corsica. During the Reign of Terror women’s clubs were closed and many women were put in jail. After the arrest and execution of Robespierre, the Jacobin club was closed, and the surviving Girondins were reinstated (Thermidorian Reaction). As a baby, he was attacked by a bull and run over by pigs, which, along with smallpox, resulted in the disfigurement and scarring of his face. Robespierre’s government issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and prices. In this series, Dr. Carson examines the connection between ideology and the revolutions of our time and traces the impact on several major countries and the spread of the ideas and practices around the world. At the same time, it was decided that deputies to that convention should be elected by all Frenchmen ages 25 and older domiciled for a year and living by the product of their labor. The Reign of Terror took place between September 5, 1793, and July 27, 1794. His father Carlo Buonaparte was named Corsica’s representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777. Representatives from the first and second estates were present and the third estate was represented by its prosperous and educated members. Sent by Napoleon from Italy, Pierre Augereau and his troops storm Tuileries and capture Generals Charles Pichegru and Willot. 75 members sat in the National Constituent Assembly and 183 in the Legislative Assembly. Its dominance marked the Reign of Terror. The following day, the Convention’s president Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac presented it with the indictment and decreed the interrogation of Louis XVI. He was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy. During the Reign of Terror, the new government issued laws ordering the closure of women's clubs and banning their political activities. Bonaparte defeated successive Austrian armies under three different leaders while continuing the siege. This video is a part of Pebbles CBSE Syllabus Live Teaching Videos Pack. Racists and nativists, particularly in Europe and the United States, have seized on this development to recruit large numbers of supporters primarily on the basis of Islamophobia. The correct answer was given: kaykay9243. He also brought out 1,000 wounded men. By coming in power, Jacobins abolished the system of slavery in the French colonies, which was one of the greatest social reforms in their reign. The conspiracies came together on Thermidor 9 (July 27) when members of the national bodies of the revolutionary government arrested Robespierre and the leaders of the Paris city government. According to its own ruling, the Convention elected its President, who was eligible for re-election, every fortnight. With Robespierre the sole remaining strongman of the Revolution following the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat and the executions of Jacques Hébert, Georges Danton, and Camille Desmoulins, his apparent total grasp on power became increasingly illusory, especially support from factions to his right. In France, the monarch didn’t have the power to impose taxes. This led to a political contest between the more moderate Girondists and the more radical Montagnards inside the Convention, with rumor used as a weapon by both sides. Although committed to republicanism, it distrusted the existing, albeit limited, democracy. On November 9, 1799 (18 Brumaire of the Year VIII), Napoleon Bonaparte staged the Coup of 18 Brumaire which installed the Consulate. In October 1795, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention. On the night of August 10, 1792, insurgents and popular militias supported by the revolutionary Paris Commune assailed the Tuileries Palace and massacred the Swiss Guards assigned for the protection of the king. Review Napoleon’s career from the military to the Directory. It was triggered by a vote of the National Convention  to execute Maximilien Robespierre, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, and several other leading members of the revolutionary government. A year later, the National Convention adopted the Constitution of 1795. They were staunch constitutional monarchists, firm in their defense of the King against the popular agitation. To assure that the Directory did not abandon the Revolution entirely, the Council required all members of the Directory to be former members of the Convention and regicides, those who had voted for the execution of Louis XVI. New members were appointed the day after Robespierre’s execution and term limits were imposed. On January 21, 1793, Louis XVI awoke at 5 a.m. and heard his last Mass. Paris voted overwhelmingly for death, 21 to 3. The Legislative Assembly first met on October 1, 1791, under the Constitution of 1791, consisting of 745 members. He was a lawyer and the leader of the Jacobins, which was a radical political group. It also increasingly depended on the Army in foreign and domestic affairs, including finance. Robspierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. Its achievements were minor and the approach reflected another turn towards dictatorship and the failure of liberal democracy. The French army fought 67 actions and won 18 pitched battles through superior artillery technology and Bonaparte’s tactics. They had to call a meeting of the Estates-General, a political body to which the three estates sent their representatives, to pass proposals for new taxes. The foundation of the Terror was centered around the April 1793 creation of the Committee of Public Safety. On September 20, the Convention became the new de facto government of France, and the next day it abolished the monarchy and declared a republic. The Jacobins identified themselves with the popular movement and the sans-culottes, who in turn saw popular violence as a political right. Biology, 01.12.2020 09:30, crystal271 Explain the reign of terror in brief The storming of the Tuileries Palace by the National Guard of the insurrectional Paris Commune and revolutionary fédérés (federates) from Marseilles and Brittany resulted in the fall of the French monarchy. The new Constitution sought to create a separation of powers: the Directors had no voice in legislation or taxation, nor could Directors or Ministers sit in either house. The royal family became prisoners and a rump session of the Legislative Assembly suspended the monarchy. For historians of revolutionary movements, the term Thermidor has come to mean the phase in some revolutions when power slips from the hands of the original revolutionary leadership and a radical regime is replaced by a more conservative regime, sometimes to the point at which the political pendulum swings back towards something resembling a pre-revolutionary state. Answers. Since the 1990s, and especially after September 2001, terrorism has replaced Communism as a major world political media headline. The Legislative Assembly was driven by two opposing groups. In June 1792, 80,000 armed sans-culottes surrounded the Convention. The Left drew its inspiration from the more radical tendency of the Enlightenment, regarded the émigré nobles as traitors, and espoused anticlericalism. In Paris and many other cities, the massacres of prisoners and priests (known as September Massacres) followed. Its laws and policies took the revolution to unprecedented heights—they introduced the revolutionary calendar in 1793, closed churches in and around Paris as a part of a movement of dechristianization, tried and executed Marie Antoinette, and instituted the Law of Suspects, among others. Most of the pieces of correspondence in the cabinet involved ministers of Louis XVI, but others involved most of the big players of the Revolution. The execution were completed after trial by revolutionary tribunal. Meanwhile, on June 24, the Convention adopted the first republican constitution of France, the French Constitution of 1793. The Thermidorian Reaction was a coup d’état during the French Revolution resulting in a Thermidorian regime characterized by the violent elimination of its perceived opponents. Citizens of the war-weary nation wanted stability, peace, and an end to conditions that at times bordered on chaos. From the beginning, relations between the king and the Legislative Assembly were hostile. The Directory reacted by purging all the winners in the Coup of 18 Fructidor, banishing 57 leaders to certain death in Guiana and closing 42 newspapers. He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. The Corsican Buonapartes were descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin, who had come to Corsica from Liguria in the 16th century. Although he had only two weeks to prepare his defense arguments, on December 26 Desèze pleaded the king’s case for three hours, arguing eloquently yet discreetly that the revolution spare his life. The government could only cover its expenses through the plunder and the tribute of foreign countries. Most Montagnards (radical republicans) favored judgement and execution, while the Girondins (moderate republicans) were divided concerning Louis’s fate. The People Storming the Tuileries on 20 June, 1792, Jacques-Antoine Dulaure, Esquisses historiques des principaux événemens de la révolution, v. 2, Paris, Baudouin frères, 1823.: The King’s veto of the Legislative Assembly’s decrees was published on June 19, just one day before the 3rd anniversary of the Tennis Court Oath that inaugurated the Revolution. Clergymen, nobles … In October 1793, a new law made all suspected priests and persons who harbored them liable to summary execution. The Legislative Assembly decreed the provisional suspension of King Louis XVI and the convocation of a National Convention which was to draw up a constitution. All … On November 20, opinion turned sharply against Louis following the discovery of a secret cache of 726 documents of his personal communications. She was guillotined on October 16, 1793. Augereau_Coup_d_etat_18_Fructidor_in_Tuileries.jpg. A commission was established to examine evidence against him while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. India and the Contemporary World I (History) Chapter-1– The French Revolution, The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 9 social science, social science class 9 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the text. He ordered a young cavalry officer named Joachim Murat to seize large cannons and used them to repel the attackers on October 5, 1795 (13 Vendémiaire in the French Republican Calendar). Bonaparte and his family fled to the French mainland in June 1793 because of the conflict with Paoli. In their place they endorsed the political ascendancy of the Jacobins. The period from 1793 to 1794 was referred to as the ‘Reign of Terror’ because of the following reasons: Maximilian Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. Robspierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. In April 1793, members of the Montagnards went on to establish the Committee of Public Safety under Robespierre, which would be responsible for the Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794), the bloodiest and one of the most controversial phases of the French Revolution. The Thermidorian Reaction was a coup d’état within the French Revolution against the leaders of the Jacobin Club who dominated the Committee of Public Safety. The clash between Directory and member of councils led to political instability, which opened the door of military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte. The Treaty of Leoben, followed by the more comprehensive Treaty of Campo Formio, gave France control of most of northern Italy and the Low Countries, and a secret clause promised the Republic of Venice to Austria. The popular demonstration of June 20, 1792, was organized to put pressure on the King. Government led by Robespierre issued many laws among which ceiling maximum wages and price and rationing were main. The patronage of the directors was ill-bestowed and the general maladministration heightened their unpopularity. His fall was brought about by conflicts between those who wanted more power for the Committee of Public Safety (and a more radical policy than he was willing to allow) and moderates who completely opposed the revolutionary government. After deputies who attempted to leave were met with guns, they resigned themselves to declare the arrest of 29 leading Girondins. The Insurrection of August 10, 1792, was one of the defining events in the history of the French Revolution. Under the leadership of Napoleon, the attackers were repelled on October 5, 1795 (13 Vendémiaire). Napoleon Bonaparte, aged 23, lieutenant-colonel of a battalion of Corsican Republican volunteers, paitning by Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux, ca. Meanwhile, French armies overran the Netherlands and established the Batavian Republic, occupied the left bank of the Rhine, and forced Spain, Prussia and several German states to sue for peace, enhancing the prestige of the National Convention. Any person who did not agree with his policies was guillotined. As he did not give the names of the “traitors,” all in the Convention had reason to fear that they were the targets. In their place they endorsed the political ascendancy of the Jacobins. As a wartime measure, the Committee was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial, and legislative efforts. In addition to widespread reaction to the Reign of Terror, Robespierre’s tight personal control of the military, distrust of military might and of banks, and opposition to supposedly corrupt individuals in government made him the subject of a number of conspiracies. The defeat of the royalist insurrection earned Bonaparte sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new government, the Directory. Owing to the abstention of aristocrats and anti-republicans and the fear of victimization, the voter turnout was low – 11.9% of the electorate. In the course of 1793, the Holy Roman Empire, the kings of Portugal and Naples, and the Grand-Duke of Tuscany declared war against France. Bonaparte led 13,000 French soldiers in the conquest of the coastal towns of Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa. Soon, the King dismissed Girondins from the Ministry. It served to further highlight the convention’s fear of enemies of the Revolution. As a result, the prison population of Paris increased from 1,417 to 4,525 people over a three months. Bonaparte decided on a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine Britain’s access to its trade interests in India. They reestablished freedom of worship, began releasing large numbers of prisoners, and initiated elections for a new legislative body. The Closing of the Jacobin Club, during the night of July 27-28, 1794. Churches were shut down and their buildings were converted into offices and barracks. The National Convention  believed that the Committee needed to rule with “near dictatorial power” and gave it new and expansive political powers to respond quickly to popular demands. The Reign of Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794), also known as The Terror, was a period of violence during the French Revolution incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins (moderate republicans) and the Jacobins (radical republicans), and marked by mass executions of “the enemies of the revolution.” The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine and another 25,000 in summary executions across France. However, these notes should be used only for references and additions/modifications should be made as per the requirements. It was ratified by public referendum, but never put into force. [CBSE 2015] Answer: The following points explain the Reign of Terror: ... We hope the given CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions The French Revolution Pdf free download will help you. They were suspicious of Louis XVI, some favoring a general European war both to spread the new ideals of liberty and equality and to put the king’s loyalty to the test. He devised plans for attacking the Kingdom of Sardinia as part of France’s campaign against the First Coalition. For the king’s sentence, deputy Jean-Baptiste Mailhe proposed “Death, but (…) I think it would be worthy of the Convention to consider whether it would be useful to policy to delay the execution.” This “Mailhe amendment,” supported by 26 deputies, was regarded by some of Mailhe’s contemporaries as a conspiracy to save the king’s life. On the night of August 10, 1792, insurgents and popular militias, supported by the revolutionary Paris Commune, assailed the Tuileries Palace and massacred the Swiss Guards assigned for the protection of the king. The time between 1792 and 1794 was dominated by the radical ideology until the execution of Robespierre in July 1794. In essence, however, power was in the hands of the five members of the Directory. Members of various revolutionary factions and groups were executed. In this 14-month period about 17000 people including innocents were executed. In April 1793, the Convention created the Committee of Public Safety. Following the fall of Robespierre and the Thermidorian Reaction in July 1794, Napoleon, although closely associated with Robespierre, was released from the arrest within two weeks and asked to draw up plans to attack Italian positions in the context of France’s war with Austria. It was even suggested that Mailhe had been paid, perhaps by Spanish gold. • All those he saw as enemies of the Republic, ex-nobles, clergy, political opponents were arrested, tried and guillotined if found guilty. Print by Claude Nicolas Malapeau (1755-1803) after an etching by Jean Duplessis-Bertaux (1747-1819). Marie Antoinette was tried separately, after Louis’s death. The Reign of Terror was a dark and violent period of time during the French Revolution. In early 1799, he moved an army into the Ottoman province of Damascus (Syria and Galilee). Not a single deputy voted “no,” although 26 attached some condition to their votes. Leading up to the Terror Napoleon drew together an alliance with a number of prominent political figures and they overthrew the Directory by a coup d’état on November 9, 1799 (Coup of 18th Brumaire). They sold flowers, fruits, vegetables and employed as servant in house hold. The French army carried out Bonaparte’s plan in the Battle of Saorgio in April 1794 and then advanced to seize Ormea in the mountains. For example - Many state schools were created, schooling was made compulsory for all girls, marriage against the will of girl was prohibited, divorce was made legal and could be applied for by both women and men, they could train for jobs, could run businesses, could become artists. At this time, he was a fervent Corsican nationalist. The Thermidorian Reaction  was a coup d’état within the French Revolution against the leaders of the Jacobin Club who dominated the Committee of Public Safety. Robespierre’s only real political power at the time lay in the Jacobin Club, which had extended itself beyond the borders of Paris and into the country. Besides functioning as legislative bodies, the Council of Five Hundred proposed the list from which the Council of Ancients chose five directors who jointly held executive power. As Napoleon I, he was emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again in 1815. To assure that the Directory did not abandon the Revolution entirely, the Council required all the members of the Directory to be former members of the Convention and regicides, those who had voted for the execution of Louis XVI. A commission was established to examine evidence against the King while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. The execution were completed after trial by revolutionary tribunal. 800px-Clu00f4ture_de_la_salle_des_Jacobins_1794.jpg. Its most famous leaders were Jacques Pierre Brissot, the philosopher Condorcet, and Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud. The Reign of Terror or simply The Terror was a period of about 11 months during the French Revolution, led by Maximilien de Robespierre. Have assumed that the Revolution also played an important role as instigator of the Directory campaign. Colonies in 1848 “ La Marseillaise ” is the National Convention adopted the Constitution of 1793 Robespierre! 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